Sunday, March 8, 2020

Human Resource Management in tourism

Human Resource Management in tourism Introduction Humanresource management is an important aspect of management in every institution.Most organizations have a separate department that performs the important function.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management in tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human beings are complicated beings and thus must be dealt with understanding. Human resources are responsible for doing activities that lead to the success of an organization. They have to be motivated and comfortable to work. Human resource management is practiced in many fields that involve human beings. Among the fields is the tourism industry (Elisa et al, 2004, p. 3). The tourism industry is characterized by diversity and therefore has sensitive needs of human resource. This report will discuss how effective Human Resource Management could contribute to the successful management of organizations in tourism industry. The report will f ocus on important elements of human resource management such as the process and policies of recruitment as well as competencies. The outcomes of ICT on human resources will be discussed to emphasize its significance in the tourism industry. It will also focus outcomes of information and communication technology, work ethics and rewards. How effective Human Resource Management could contribute to the successful management of organizations in tourism industry Human resources are very important for the success of any organization. Managing them can be challenging and thus organizations must be effective to in dealing with human resources. Their efforts to produce are what determine the success of the organization in any field including the tourism industry (2010, p. 1). In his research, Nickson (2006, p. 1) points out that the human resource management in the tourism incorporates the management principles to integrate with the specific needs in the tourism industry. These needs among o thers include recruitment policies and process, outcomes of ICT (information communication technology), inequalities and management of different staff, work ethics and rewards. Recruitment process According to the UNEP (2010, p. 147) recruitment is the methods used to get human resources who have attained the qualifications and can work. The end stage of recruitment which is often confused with recruitment is selection. The process starts with advertisement where several persons who are capable of working can apply.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The advertisements can be done on the notice boards or media or in the internet. Usually internal advertisements are done before external advertisements. Additionally, the existing employees are given priority in the selection. After advertisements, applicants respond and their applications are received whether online or manually. The candidates are short listed and invite for an interview. The interview is conducted by panelists who select the best on merit. Sometimes there is a second interview after which selection is done. The successful candidates are notified and invited to start working in the industry (Torrington, 2005, p. 46). Selected candidates report and are given induction and upon completion they start working. Induction is done by the human resource representatives, departments head or a fellow worker. The employee is given a team to work with or is given office to start working. In case the panelist fails to get successful candidates, there is a re-advertisement. The process is repeated until they get the right candidate. Sometimes selected candidates fail to report. In such cases the human resource management may select another who was second in the interview performed or start from the beginning of the recruitment. Recruitment Policies Jolliffe (1989, Para 1) indicates that touris m industry has to consider seasons in the recruitment of its human resources. This is because the tourism industry has a high season when there are many tourists while in other seasons there are few tourists. Due to the seasons, the employer must hire temporary employees that are going to work during the high season and a few permanent who will work all round the year. The recruitment process must be transparent. It should enable the employer to get committed employees who are best suited for the organization. The recruiters must be qualified and credible and should be aware of the nature of the organization. They should also know the needs of the organization. There should be no discrimination due to color or background of the candidates (Nickson, 2006, p. 1). Competence Elisa et al (2004, p. 3) note that the human resource management should look for managers who will support the tourism organization to earn more revenue. The human resources efforts determine the success of the org anization and those selected must be willing to employ their knowledge and skill in the industry.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management in tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The human resources must therefore be willing to perform and participate in the expansion of the tourism industry. This is because the profits obtained from the industry will be used to pay all due for the employees and other necessities of the company. Career oriented employees tend to be of great help to the tourism industry. In their pursuit to explore and develop their career in the industry, they lead to the success of the company. Such employees can be given the opportunity to grow and advance as they contribute positively (Elisa et al, 2004, p. 3). Training of the human resources in the tourism industry can lead to successful management. Training can be done to different groups in the industry depending on their roles. Training will enable workers be motivated, know what they are expected to do and work effectively and efficiently. Training also gives opportunities for discovery and development of talent (Elisa et al 2004, p. 4). In the recent practices, the human resource management has placed more emphasis on the management of finances and the ability to market to recruit employees. Another area of competency given attention is the recruitment of workers with information technology competencies. Managers recruit those with computer competencies as a basic criterion. In most cases those with specific expertise in certain areas are recruited and trained to perform specialized tasks. This in turn lead to more rewards as well as expansion of the tourism industry (Elisa et al 2004, p. 4). Further learning of employees in the tourism industry can be encouraged. When they go for further studies, employees increase their skill and become more knowledgeable thus work with more understanding. They learn new developments in the tourism industry and can implement it to realize success. Such employees who go for further studies require little induction in the industry and are therefore in a better position to handle difficulties within the industry than fresh graduates. Outcomes of ICT The use of ICT has led to success in the management of the tourism industry. As Elisa et al (2004, p. 1) note, computer competency is a basic requirement for new recruits. The organizations also have taken initiatives to train employees on computer skills. This is because the environment has changed and people are embracing technology in businesses.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore technology is being used widely in advertising and thus expertises are required in the tourism industry. Therefore, they use their specialization to lead the organization to gain more profits and stay in the global competition. ICT has been effective in a number of areas. It has been used in the recruitment process to advertise and communicate with potential employees. It has also been used in the management of the industry. The industry has benefited in keeping relevant data about employees, the organization and communicating within and outside the organization. ICT has been a weapon in advertising and communicating with clients. For instance customers can make on line booking for a holiday in a distant location. Furthermore, ICT has opened opportunities and created employment opportunities due to expression. The outcomes of ICT have been helpful in trucking changes in the world as they happen. Through internet, a lot of valuable information can be acquired and thus it is possible to adjust the services as well as management practices to deal with the dynamic requirements of clients. The employees can learn and find relevant information about a problem and Thus ICT has led to the successful management of human resources in the tourism industry. Inequalities and management of different staff The tourism industry is exposed to diversity. Nickson (2006, p. 1) suggest that there should be equality in the selection of employees in the tourism industry without discrimination because of color or background. Thus the human resources should be accommodative to different people of different cultures. A variety of employees from different cultures can be of advantage to the tourism industry. This is because such institutions that deal with diverse clients will benefit from the different employees who may be in a better position to such clients. This may be due to the advantage of being multilingual where they can speak in the language the client understands. M anaging the staff in terms of health and having a general concern of their welfare is important. Employees with a medical cover from the organization have a sense of security. Employees with ill health have a lower input and are prone to absenteeism. A comprehensive medical cover from the institution has positive impacts on success of the company. This is because employees are catered for, can be treated and recover. Those without cover may lack funds for proper treatment hence will keep falling sick and eventually lead to low input in the company. Some medical covers cater for the immediate family members of the employee thus he is able to concentrate on the job (Nickson 2006, p. 1). Work ethics The Sustainable Tourism Online (2010, p.1) the management has to maintain good working relations in the tourism industry. It can have considerate working hours and arrangements for its employees. Additional, it can discourage violations within work and encourage respect among the employees. Such habits as use of drugs and alcohol can be discouraged. The organization can introduce beneficial leisure activities like clubs as an alternative to abusing drugs (Nickson, 2006, p. 1). There is importance in strategizing whenever there are challenges and problem among the human resources as Nickson (2006, p. 1) indicates. The management must address the grievances of employees whenever cases of violation and misunderstandings are reported. It can adopt techniques of solving problems to reconcile the parties and address issues without taking sides. Poor relationships among employs are characterized with tension and discourage teamwork. Without teamwork, the tourism industry may not realize its goals. Rewards In their research Elisa et al (2004, p. 1) revealed that rewards for the human resources are part and parcel of effective management that led to success. Their research findings suggested that employees who are compensated for their work are motivated and devoted to work. C ompensation is based on organizational levels. The top ranked managers receive a great reward than the juniors. The middle managers receive lower than the top managers and higher than the juniors. The juniors are paid least than the others. Additionally, the most experienced are considered to be valuable and are therefore paid an amount considerate of their experience. Wages of employees increase when the employees are promoted. This is because their tasks and responsibilities have been expanded. The wages increase also when the worker goes for further training and hence need to be given a more challenging task. Elisa et al (2004, p. 2) identify increase in work load as a factor that lead to addition of wages to employees. An organization may experience increased clients and thus the organization may choose to add on wages instead of recruiting more workers who may be relieved from work when the season is low. Elisa et al (2004, p. 3) note that the criterion for compensation is base d on the position of the employees more than the skills and knowledge they possess. Although they have competencies and knowledge in many areas and are experts in specific fields, their rewards reflect the responsibilities that are attached to their specific positions. This means that those with similar education qualification and are of equal competencies are paid lower because they have fewer and different responsibilities than their seniors. Consequently, the managers in charge use their superior positions to learn more skills in management and thus maintain their position. This competition makes them very effective leading to the success of the organization. Middle level managers who wish to get higher rewards use their positions to demonstrate their abilities. Since they work closely with the top managers, they ensure that they demonstrate their ability to their immediate supervisors (Baum, 2006, p. 4). In most cases they are of same qualifications as the boss and therefore the y learn from them. Whenever there are opportunities for promotion they are likely to be recommended since they have demonstrated ability and skills in the human resource management (Elisa et al, 2004, p. 3). Skills and education of an individual are important in determining the rewards (Torrington 2005, p. 45). Effective rewards dependent on the qualifications of an individual gives satisfaction to the employee. When rewarded according to his ability, the employee devotes his time to work for the tourism industry hence there is success. Underpaid professionals tend to look for opportunities in other organizations. Highly skilled individuals are usually on demand as Elisa et al (2004, p. 2) state. They include personnel in specialized areas like information technology. They demand for high wages and thus to maintain them they are paid according to their demands. Managers are in most cases responsible to reward and can be sensitive to human resources needs. The mangers can have additi onal rewards for outstanding employees. This will encourage competition in the company for excellent performance. Workers who have worked for long in the company can be rewarded for their commitment. Recognition for work well did lead to improved performance. Recommendations In future the tourism industry may investigate the rewards organization. This is because the criterion for payment in some cases is position and in other cases it is expertise knowledge. Furthermore, a balance between expertise and position to determine reward can be made (Elisa et al, 2004, p. 4). Conclusion In conclusion, the effective management of human resources is the key to success of the tourism industry. This can be achieved by adopting a recruitment process that is transparent. The process should enable the organization employ competent employees who will lead the company to realize more profits and expand. Policies that allow for diversity and equal treatment can be adopted while paying attention to c ompetence of the employee. Importance of ICT and the outcomes cannot be estimated, as already mentioned, there are changes due to use of technology hence the tourism industry must embrace technology. Technology expands the organizations in terms of business and creates working opportunities for human beings. ICT therefore makes communication possible within and outside the organization. People of different color and back ground can work together effectively and lead to the success. Thus being multi lingual brings positive outcomes in the organization. Additionally, people can learn to work with people from different culture since tourism industry is diverse in nature. Furthermore, the management can ensure that there are policies that govern the behavior of the employees to maintain good relation. It can use strategic measures to solve differences among employees. Moreover, employees must be compensated for their work adequately. This will encourage them to work hard. Reference List Baum, T., 2006. Human Resource Management for tourism, Hospitality and Leisure:  An International Perspective. Australia: Thomson Learning. Elisa, M. Kay, C., 2004. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for lodging  Management success (Human resource) business journal: Cornell hotel and  Restaurant administration quarterly. Web. Jolliffe, L., 1989. Seasonality in tourism employment: Human resource challenges.  International journal of contemporary hospitality management, vol 15, no. 6. Nickson, D., 2006. Human resource management for the hospitality and tourism Industries. Butterworth: Heinemann. Web. Sustainable tourism online., 2010. Human resource management: Recognition and Management of emotional labor in the tourism industry. Web. Torrington, D. P., Hall, L.A, Taylor, S., 2005. Human Resource Management (6th ed.).  UK: FT Prentice Hall. UNEP., 2010. Sustainable Tourism in protected areas: Human Resource planning for  Tourism for in protected areas. UK: FT Prentice Ha ll. Virbus., 2010. Human resource management. Web.

Friday, February 21, 2020

What is an Oligopoly Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

What is an Oligopoly - Essay Example Oligopoly, (which is Greek for many sellers) demonstrates a very characteristic feature of mutual interdependence 3of each in the model onto other firm's action. Each firm in an oligopoly recognizes that the pricing or output decisions made by one firm will affect the profits of all firms in the industry.4 Because of this mutual interdependence, the firms in an oligopoly market need to act strategically, and it is this existence of strategic behavior or barriers which distinguish the oligopoly model from perfect competition and monopoly.5 The fundamental features are that sellers are price-makers and the demand curve of every firm is slightly slopping down. As the figure below aptly demonstrates, the demand curve in an oligopoly will be a "Kinked" demand curve which may be similar to the traditional demand curves in the Perfect competition, as they are downward-sloping but it will have a kink or a bend. 6 Before I discuss the barriers utilized by a monopoly it would be useful to show how the factor of interdependence manifests itself as a game theory which can be well illustrated as the prisoner's dilemma as apparent from the diagram below. The above diagram (taken from the internet) shows the classic example of the Game theory being played out between two firms in an oligopoly. These two firms are aware of their price levels and cautious in an increase or decrease in the prices which can break out into a price war/or cause cut-throat pricing which will ultimately cause losses to all the firms in the oligopoly. Economic theory dictates that these firms will inevitably return to the original position in case of such a price war. Barriers in Oligopolies The Game theory as apparent from the diagram above shows some interesting incites into strategic barriers and their dilemmas and this theory became popular in the decade of the 1970s where there was a substantial shift to firm behavior with regards to firm behavior. Barriers in a monopoly can be natural or strategic. They are aimed at keeping competing firms away 7. Market entry is very difficult in oligopolies. Oligopolies operate on a large scale and therefore have high sunk costs( which are industrial expenses that cannot be recovered once a firm has started a business). This means that if large amounts of capital are used to enter an industry which depreciates in value rather quickly there will be a barrier to entry for new aspiring firms. Secondly, if the firm has problems in establishing the reputation of its product through high scale advertising and discount schemes it will be too expensive for other firms to enter the market and actually attain the same level of excellence without incurring large amounts of initial losses. An example of this is the telecoms industry where the various cell phone carriers have established oligopolies in their price and service mechanisms.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

ECONOMICS 3400 QUIZ 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

ECONOMICS 3400 QUIZ 1 - Essay Example Bhagwati also says that the fair trade that Obama agitates for affect free trade agreements. If Obama needs to clinch multilateralism and free trade in a forceful manner, he needs competent advisors that will see and criticize the demands associated with free trade and which amounts to protectionism (Bhagwati). Moreover, his advisors should also dismiss union fears that trading with poor countries harms the workers wages. Therefore, Bhagwati affirms that free trade is not a country’s interest. His arguments depicts that trade liberalization tends to expose secluded industries and capitalism associated with them and finally making them vanish. However, this approach does not result to growth. Moreover, it will result to emergence of new sectors that create modern exports. This will in turn propel a country towards comparative advantage. Bhagwati furthers presents his argument that free trade should not be reciprocal for it to be advantageous. He argues that the country tends to destruct its trade barriers after being offered mutual reductions. Moreover, he argues that trade liberalization has a capacity of weakening what a country is capable of offering in swapping to attain adequate access to foreign

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

How Does The Concentration Affect Osmosis?

How Does The Concentration Affect Osmosis? Diffusion is the net passive movement of particles atoms, ions or molecules from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. Diffusion is important process that occurs in human body example of one of many types of diffusion which occur in the human body is gas exchange at the alveoli- oxygen from air to blood, carbon dioxide from blood to air. [5] Osmosis is the diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane. [1] Diffusion and osmosis is an example of passive transport. Passive transport is a movement of substance across a permeable membrane without added energy. The difference between osmosis and diffusion is that; diffusion can take place without a membrane whereas osmosis only takes place across a semi permeable membrane. Osmosis only involves movement of water across a permeable membrane. Osmosis is much slower than the rate of diffusion. Osmosis is a passive transport of water whereas diffusion is a passive transport of solutes. [7, 8] A permeable membrane is a membrane that allows all types of molecules or ions to penetrate through it; it lets everything go through it such as salt. [6] Whereas a  semi permeable membrane  is a membrane that allows let only solvents, like water, to pass through it. It is a membrane that will only allow certain molecules through it. In general oxygen, food and water are allowed to enter; waste products are allowed to exit and harmful substances are kept out. It doesnt let large soluble pass through it. [2, 3] Osmosis is the main way water is transported in and out of cells in the human body. The areas of high concentration of water molecules are called hypotonic. Hypotonic solution has a low concentration of dissolved substances. Areas of low concentration of water molecules are called hypertonic. Hypertonic solution has a high concentration of dissolved substances. During osmosis, water molecules naturally travel from hypotonic areas to hypertonic areas. Water molecules travel from hypotonic areas to hypertonic areas because this process equalizes the concentrations of water and dissolved substances. [4] This is example of osmosis in human body, Salts and minerals from water are transferred in the body through osmosis. Water flows through the plasma membrane of cells and due to osmosis concentration of water, glucose and salt is maintained inside the body. [9] Active  transport  is when dissolved molecules move across a cell membrane  from a lower to a higher concentration. In active transport, particles move  against  the concentration gradient and therefore require an input of energy  from the cell. The energy used to absorb the molecules comes from respiration. In humans, active transport takes place during the  digestion  of food in the small intestine. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars such as glucose. The glucose is absorbed by active transport into the villi, to be passed into the bloodstream and taken around the body. [10] [11] Diffusion[12] [13] Apparatus: Potato chip: This will help me justify if osmosis is occurring. I have used potato chip to help me justify if osmosis as it is a semi-permeable cell. The length, width and mass of all the potato chip used in the experiment are to be kept same. Scalpel and a chopping tile: The scalpel will be used to cut all the potato chip to the chosen length and width. The chopping tile will used to place the potato chip while being to reduce damages to the work area i.e. cutting of work place while cutting the chip. Electronic scale: Electronic scale will be used in my experiment to measure the mass of potato chip during the experiment. I have decided to use Electronic scale rather than a spring balance to weigh the potato chip because using electronic scale means that my results are accurate as electronic scale has measuring units ranging from grams- kilograms. My results will also be precise as the electronic scale measures the weight of something to 2 decimal places. The results obtained from a spring balance will not be precise; the results will also not be accurate as parallax error could occur while reading the data. The use of balance is necessary in the experiment because I will need to calculate mass of the potato before and after during the experiment, so that I can calculate reliable percentage difference in mass. Distilled water: This will be used to preserve the potato chip .I have decided to use distilled water rather than water because it is an isotonic solution and using distilled water to preserve the potato chip means that the potato chip wont be affected by outside factors; therefore making my results reliable. Ruler: Ruler will be used in my experiment to accurately measure the width and the length of the potato chip; to make sure that they are all same size. I have decided to use a ruler marked in units of cm and mm so that my results will be precise as the potato chip cutting will be even and of the same size. Filter paper: This will be used in my experiment to blot the potato chip once it has been taken out of the sucrose solution; I will blot the potato chip in order to absorb excess water from the potato so that there is as little water molecules in the potato; doing this will help me measure the true value of the mass of the potato and make my result more accurate. Labels: To make sure that the experiment run smoothly, each agar plate that is being utilised in the experiment will be labelled. Labels will be used in my experiment so that the potato chip in a solution can be easily identified. Labels will help me find the concentration of a particular solution. Labelling the agar plates will prevent confusion, and reduce anomalous results. Sucrose solution: I will need a sufficient number of concentrations. This is so that I can easily show anomalies and trends in my results in order to draw an accurate conclusion. Sucrose solution will be used in my experiment as this will help me to figure out if osmosis is occurring. The aim of my investigation is to see how the rate of osmosis is affected by the concentration of the sucrose solution so I will be using different concentration of sucrose solution. Measuring cylinder: Cylinder will be used in my experiment to measure the amount of sucrose solution. I have decided to use a measuring cylinder rather than a beaker to measure the amount of sucrose solution because it is made to +0.5ml or -0.5ml where as a beaker is made to +3ml or -3ml. Using measuring cylinder will mean that there will be a high level of accuracy in my results. Using cylinder will mean the amount of concentration on each is accurate. Agar Plate (6): Agar plate will be used in my experiment to hold the sucrose solution and the potato chips. The agar plates will be labelled to prevent confusion and this will reduce chances of anomalous results. For e.g. If I were to add a sucrose solution with a concentration of 0.1 on to a agar plate but believed I had picked a sucrose solution with a concentration of 0.2, the results produced would contain error and would be anomalous. I have also decided to use an agar plate. Using a test tube could possibly result in potato chips leaning on the sides and decreasing the chips surface area. Therefore, I have decided to an agar plate rather than a test tube to carry out the experiment Stop watch: Stopwatch will be used in my experiment to record the amount of time the potato chip has been placed in the solution. Stopwatch watch will be used so that the timings of the experiment are accurately followed, and that the potato is removed from solution at the correct time. This way, the experiment remains fair. Health and Safety: Healthy and safety procedures are very important while carrying out the experiment: Scribe: Scribes will be used in the experiment to cut the potato chips, but could cause fatal injury if treated carelessly. Scribes are dangerous; they are sharp and could cause wounds. You should not walk in the lab carrying a scribe. Scribe shouldnt be placed at edge of the table which could result in injury if it falls off. Wear goggles- It is important to wear goggles to protect our eyes from any spills that could happen. In case of sucrose solution getting into your eyes, immediately flush eyes with water. It is also recommended to wear latex gloves as they are thin, see through and will not create difficulty for you while doing the experiment. Latex gloves will create a barrier between the substances and your hand. Wearing gloves protects our hand form the irritation which could be caused by sucrose solution. Wearing goggles and latex gloves will mean that there is maximum skin protection and minimises chances of irritation from substances coming in contact with the skin. People with sensitive skin are more likely to be affected if the solution gets spilled on their skin. Hands should also be washed after doing the experiment. Carry out the experiment standing- It is important to carry out the experiment standing, so that there is less chance of injury happening to you. If something happens, i.e. Sucrose solution spills, you can quickly move from the area. Positioning of equipment- Acids and Alkalis should be kept in a position where they are not likely to fall or spill. It shouldnt be kept at edge of the table. Equipment such as measuring cylinder which is made out of glass could fall and break easily if placed inappropriately, i.e. edge of the table. Broken pieces of glasses are hazard, it could easily cut someone. It is also important to put the beaker which contains the concentration of solution accordingly so that there are no spills; spills in the work area is an hazard, people could easily slip. Work area: Working area must be kept clear, there should be no baggage lying on the floor which could cause people to trip over, it is a hazard. Hazards in work place could lead to injury. It is also important not to run around while carrying equipment, equipment such as scribe could cause injury to yourself. Factors: Independent variable: The independent variable in the experiment is the concentration of sucrose solution. I will be changing the concentration of the sucrose solution to see how it affects osmosis. Dependent variable: The dependent variable in the experiment is the mass of the potato. I will be measuring the mass of the potato before placing it in the solution and after they have been placed in the solution. The mass of the potato after they have been placed in a solution is a continuous variable. Controlled variable: The controlled variable in the experiment are: Experimental room: The temperature affects the rate of a reaction because the greater the temperature, the greater the heat. There will be a higher rate of osmosis in the cell membrane because particles in the solution will be moving quickly due to temperature change. Water molecules will gain kinetic energy which increase osmosis. Higher temperature could also cause the cell membrane to denature, the water molecules in the solution could also evaporate. The temperature at which the experiment is carried out must remain constant in order for an experiment to be a fair test and my results to be reliable.  I would conduct the experiment in the same room to make this factor constant. Type of cell: Permeability of potatoes can differ, if I use potato chips with different level of permeability, the amount of solution going through will not be the same. I will be using potatoes with same level of permeability. Surface area of the chips: It is important to keep the surface area of each potato the same in the experiment. Potato chips with higher surface will mean that osmosis occurs faster, because more of the potato is available for reaction. Time: In order to find out how concentration affects osmosis. The amount of time which the potato will be left in a solution should remain constant. Having a potato chip in a solution for longer time will mean that it will have a greater chance to carry out osmosis than the other chips. This will mean that my experiment will become an unfair test; I will be using a stopwatch to keep this factor constant. Volume of concentration used: The volume of concentration used in the experiment needs to remain constant to make my experiment a fair test. If this factor wasnt kept constant then the amount of water molecules on the agar plate would be different and will be varying the rate of osmosis because there will be higher probability of water molecule diffusing through the permeable membrane. I will be keeping this factor constant by using a measuring cylinder which has a measuring accuracy of +0.5ml or -0.5ml. Hypothesis: I also believe that when the chip is placed in a dilute concentration of sucrose solution, it will gain mass and become rigid. The concentration of sucrose solution will have more water than the inside of the chip. This will result in water moving from the solution to the chip. The chip will gain mass as water goes in to the cell. The chip will become turgid and strong. I also believe that there will be a stage in the experiment where the potato will neither gain nor lose any mass. This will occur because the potato chips will be in an isotonic solution. The concentration inside and outside of the potato will be the same so no osmosis will be occurring. I believe as the concentration of the sucrose solution increases, the mass of the potato will decrease. During osmosis substances move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. Therefore, when a chip is placed in a concentrated sucrose solution, it will lose mass because the chip has a higher concentration of water than the sucrose solution. The sucrose solution in which the potato is kept will have will be concentrated and will not have much water. Water will move out from the chip and the cell becomes flaccid. Sugar molecules in the sucrose solution are too large to go through a semi-permeable membrane so water moves out during osmosis. The permeable membrane only allows solvent through it, the solute (sugar molecules) cant go through it. Preliminary test I have also carried out a preliminary test to see if there were any changes to be made in the final experiment. Preliminary method: I collected all the equipment needed for experiment. I made sure that I labelled the six agar plates that I used in my experiment to reduce confusion and minimise any chances of anomalous results. I measured the length of the potato; the width of each potato chip was same. The width of each potato chip to be used in the experiment was same. I measured the length of each potato chip using a ruler to make sure it was equal. Using potato chips with same length and width will result in all chips having mass but I measured mass of each chip rather than assuming the mass to be the same. If the mass had been different due to inaccurate measuring of length and width, I would change the length and width and measure the mass again. Then, I measured the mass of the potato using an electric scale. I also blotted the chip before measuring it to get an accurate value. I also waited 5 seconds after placing it on the scale to ensure that the figure displayed on the scale was not fluctuating. I poured †¦ m3 of a particular concentration of the sucrose solution into the agar plate using a measuring cylinder. Then, I placed the chip in a labelled agar plate with the correct concentration for 5 mins. I then took out the chip from the solution and blotted the chip with tissue paper to absorb any excess solution off the potato. I measured the mass of the potato after it was placed in the solution to figure out if it gained or lost mass. I carried out three repeats for each concentration to make sure that my results were reliable Then, I repeated step 3-7 for all the concentrations to be used in the experiment. Graph Analysis: During the experiment, I placed a potato chip on different concentrations of sucrose solution. We can see that as the concentration increases the mass decreases. During 0.5. Mass is acquired this cud be due to inaccurate measuring. From the graphs it is clear that there is coherent negative correlation the independent variable and the dependant variable. As the concentration increases, the percentage difference decreases. As the concentration increases from 0 100 the percentage change in massdecreases from †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. My results are reliable and accurate; it shows a strong negative correlation. All the concentrations have small range bars, indicating that the results are accurate and can be relied upon. However, results: 0.1m, 0.9m, and 1.0m all have large range bars suggesting they are unreliable. Ultimately, there is a connection between the concentration and the percentage change in mass Evaluation: I used an electronic scale to measure the mass of the potato during the experiment. The results given by the scale were precise but while measuring the chip during the experiment, there was a zero error. The scale showed mass of 0.04g when there was nothing placed on it. The scale was also free of water or any solution which could have caused the scale to show mass. The zero error present on the scale could have been the cause for anomalous results in the preliminary experiment. I also placed the chip in the solution for 5 minutes; I believe the time isnt long enough for osmosis to take place. Changes made from preliminary In my preliminary, I used five different concentration of sucrose solution, to find out if concentration affects osmosis. I have now decided to use nine different concentration of sucrose solution, ranging from 0% to 100%. I have done this to make sure that there will be a range of results which I can draw a conclusion from. I also placed the chip in the solution for 5 minutes; I believe the time isnt long enough for osmosis to take place. I believe perhaps a longer time would enable osmosis to take more effect. I will be putting the chip in the solution for 10 mins in my final experiment to increase the osmotic activity. Final experiment method: Final experiment results: *All data in the results are given correctly to two decimal places. *The difference in mass is worked out by the increase/decrease in mass, divided by the original mass and then, X 100. For example, The difference in mass for the concentration 0% is worked out by: (1.81-1.71) X 100 1.75 This is 3.43%. Graph analysis: The graph depicts a negative correlation. As the sucrose concentration increases (the independent variable), the change in mass of the plant tissue (the dependant variable) decreases. Evaluation: I would pick the chip from the distilled water by tweezers rather than hand. I will tweezers to pick it because this will mean that the potato chip doesnt make contact with skin, and no moisture will be absorbed by the chip form the potato. Moisture from skin could affect the mass of the potato. However, using tweezers to pick the potato, I could be damaging the chips cell which will have an effect on the results. I also used an electronic scale to measure the mass of the potato chip during the experiment; the use of electronic scale to measure the potato chip meant that my results obtained are precise as it gave figures to two decimal places. I think my result were also accurate because using an electronic scale meant that no parallax error occurred. If I were to use a spring balance to measure the chip of the potato, parallax error could occur. However, using an electronic scale could have resulted in systematic and zero error which could change my results significantly. I have also made sure that while measuring the chip, there was no zero error occurring. Zero error could have been the possible reason for anomalous results in the preliminary experiment. I have made sure that the scale displayed 0.00, in order to get an accurate value of the chip and to make my results reliable. It was also very hard in my experiment to make sure that each chip had a same surface area. The chips could possibly have different surface area. Although, we too care while measuring the length and width to make sure the difference of surface area between chips was minimal. I would also like to use a ruler with even smaller increments, such as tenth of millimetres to make sure that the length and width of the chip is very accurate. Despite the fact the chips could have different surface area; other controlled variables were kept the same throughout the experiment so my experiment can be considered reliable. I also carried the experiment three times for each concentration, doing this improves the reliability of the experiment. Doing three repeats for each concentration also increases reliability of the results. I also used concentration of solution ranging from 0%-100%, I believe I have used sufficient amount of concentrations to draw a conclusion. If I were to repeat the experiment, I would change the concentration in the experiment by 5% rather than 10%, this will allow me to work with a range of results. There could also be a human error in my experiment. For instance, I could have blotted one of the chips with filter paper more than the other; this would have resulted in a lower mass of the chip while weighing it. Human error could have been the reason for anomalous results. Other reasons for anomalous results could have been due to: Inaccurate measurements of the sucrose solution Systematic/ zero error while weighing the chip Pipette I also waited 5 seconds after I place the chip on the scale to measure it, so that the figure was settled. I also used an agar plate to ensure that potato chips were not touching the sides. The range of concentrations I used in the experiment are sufficient enough to Even though, I chose 10 mins prior to 5 mins for my real experiment, I would still like to change the time, I would make the time to 30 mins. This time would allow the process of osmosis to occur fully. Therefore, allowing me to collect clear data which shows the true difference made by each concentration. I would also consider using a precise, accurate and better weighing scale to measure the mass of the potato. Even though, the scale was accurate and precise. The weighing scale was constantly fluctuating which didnt allow me to get an accurate reading. I would like to use a scale which doesnt fluctuate and has higher level of precision- it should be able to measure to 3dp. This would also make my experiment and the results obtained reliable. Conclusion: Error bars The error bars have quite a small range. This means that my experiment is reliable. The error bars are not far apart; this implies that the results have been recorded in a similar way. This also tells us that the controlled variables such as, type of cell have been maintained throughout the experiment. Skills for Effective Management | Reflection Skills for Effective Management | Reflection Introduction Effective Management Skills There are a number of skills which are required for sake of effective management instead of a magical formula. This abet in getting the continual learning process in an easier and effective manner. If there is a proper management style being followed then one would be able to get the best leadership style being followed. Thus, few things are always necessary which are helpful in giving positive results in end. Some of the skills are; To be your ownself. Building an effective management style. Have some clear standards. Should be able to give feedback openly Always create an environment of trust Try to encourage staff Maintain regular meetings with staff. Set targets for every month. Examine all issues timely. Always admit your own mistakes Going along with all of these there is a need to understand the three major effective manager skills areas which are being observed. They are named as task execution, the wonderful commercial insight and proper people skills. There is a competence being maintained in all of these three then it would become a bit easier for sake of people to manage things and get beneficial results through their small acts. (Andrew, F. 2009) i) Task Execution When there is a talk about the task execution then it is clear that execution of the complex tasks and getting the proper management of projects is quite helpful. This is not only helpful in getting efficient operations done properly, but along with that it also abet in doing the planning, organizing and considerate kind of monitoring of the performances. Through that strong results focus can be attained in a particular manner. It gives the sense of urgency which is almost one of the biggest necessities for sake of those people who are thinking of getting the time pressures faced in an easier manner. EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN THREE DIFFERENT AREAS TASK EXECUTION COMMERCIAL INSIGHT PEOPLE SKILLS ii) Commercial Insight This commercial insight is necessary for sake of getting a competitive edge. This can be beneficial as this emphasizes efficiency. Whether there is a need to talk about private sector or the government sector managers both can get benefited through it. Best thing is that, proper kind of setup is ascertained for sake of profitability or some times for return on investment as well. Many managers used to get strategic thinking ability through it. That abet in giving focus over the right tasks. Through them there is a chance to get an addition to most value. In a commercial insight proper planning skills are helpful in prioritizing different combinations of some abilities which are a proper mean of understanding financial aspects smoothly. Almost every kind of resources can be allocated through it at their disposal wisely. iii) People Skills There is integrity to foster trust. That abet in getting an emotional intelligence in a successful manner. This gives some kind of empowering, elegant coaching, some what motivating and a number of developing people catalysts easily. There are different ranges of tasks which can get a good facilitator easily. This is known to be people skill option, through which people can acquire effectiveness in their communication and tremendous kind of good listening skills as well. Skills Required For Effective Management Thus, there is always a need to have effective, efficient and positive kind of attitude towards management. This use to abet in getting wonderful results in future. Thus, two main types of skills which are required for the sake of an effective management are known to be; Personal Skills Professional Skills If an individual is able to make the excessive usage of both of these skills, then there might be some end results in the form of positive, progressive and spectacular results as well. There is a need to know how management differs from leadership. Management means to execute task effectively and efficiently and to achieve goals by utilizing all resources available for particular project or goal. However, leadership defines new directions or promotes organization. Leadership defines goals and resources but management utilize all resources to achieve goals set by leadership. Effective Management Skills For effective and efficient manager it is very important to have skills in three areas: People skills, Commercial insight and task execution. Many Managers seeks or get training how to strengthen in different areas but best managers have all 3 management skills. Task execution means to execute task with proper planning and also monitor performance of the task. In task execution strong focus remains on results and complex tasks are executed through efficient operations and monitoring. Skilled people manager create trust and the exciting intelligence to deal with different people fruitfully. Managers adopt strategic approach and focus on return on investment and profitability. Managers always tried to add more value in their product and utilize all resources according to output. Example of A Managers Effective Three Personal And Professional Skills Let me describe the importance of an effective management and different kinds of skills through the help of an example; Lets us consider that Mr. XYZ is having three types of personal and professional skills. His personal skills use to include interpersonal skills, communicative and self motivated person. Where as his professional skills use to include leadership, innovative strengths and disturbance handling skills as well. Thus, let me tell you that how these three kinds of skills might be helpful in determining the whole process and achieving success at the end of this process. Firstly, If there would be any kind of decision making, then through the help of innovative, adaptive, communicative and supportive skills, the manager might be able to handle the whole process. Not only that, but also there would be some positive results would be seen in it. Secondly, one thing which is necessary to be kept in notice that, if MR. XYZ is able to deliver his professional skills through the help of his personal skills, then there might be some different kinds of impacts being seen during the management processes. Let me list down some of them Successful process Easy communication Proper working Timely completion of work No Quality compromises Effective Leadership Efficient control Trust worthy working Value of manager would definitely be increased Chances of promotions Improvements might also be seen Thus, all of these seem to be proof that, if there is a proper usage of skills of an individual then there might be different kinds of results being seen in it. Methods To Improve Personal And Professional Skills Following are the methods through which one is able to improve the personal and professional skills; 1) Giving proper audits and assessments about things what they already know or necessary to be known to get some learning development plan option in an easier manner. 2) Learning and giving acknowledgement to personal development for sake of professional realms 3) Understanding the qualities 4) Relevant theoretical constructs formulation Answer #2 Personal Skill Audit Personal skills which are being inhibited, which are discussed earlier, they are as under interpersonal skills communicative skill self motivated Thus, if we make out audit of these personal skills then we might be able to get the result that all these three kinds of skills are positive and helpful in achieving a number of goals in life of a person; there are different approaches which are found over there. (Bob, J Michael, K. 2004) Firstly, interpersonal skills of individual are able to make different kind of information flow, between two people. These skills seem to be advantageous in nature, as one person is able to tell that what is the desired concern? Secondly, communicative skills are helpful in making communication in case of personal and professional life. Because of these skills, the confidence level of a person is very high. He or she might be able to convey message easily, with out any kind of lose of control. Thirdly, self motivated means that an individual is able to increase enthusiasm and motivation in other people as well. This can be made possible only because of supportive attitude which is being created because of self motivation. Thus, if there is always a carrying of these kinds of skills, then their directed usage might be helpful in getting success, in personal and professional life as well. They are helpful in making learning through them. How Main Theme Of Learning Program Have Impacted On My Work Role From the above discussion it is clear that there is a specified kind of impact which is being made over the work role. That is helpful in giving proper kind of differentiation in oneà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s own personal skill. Along with that they would be helpful in having a direct or indirect impact over the interpersonal and professional skills. Thus there are a number of benefits which are being attained through it; There is a higher level thinking skills development being made possible Interaction and familiarity with things were made possible. Increase in self esteem took place Enhancement of satisfaction occurred Promotion of the positive attitude all enhanced oral communication skills got a certain development There is an improvement in the social interaction skills Some kind of the active, apparently involved and definitely exploratory kind of attitude developed. There is an encouragement in the diversity of understanding which took place Safe environment learning took place. Improvement in self management skills took place Usage of constructivist approach become easier now The atmosphere of cooperation becomes a bit easier to be understood. Development in the interpersonal relationships occurred. Generation of the stronger kind of social support system took place. Promotion of some kind of innovation becomes visible. Skill building techniques and the practicing techniques were being analyzed frequently. All of these aspects are helpful in determining the corrective steps towards work. This seems to be positive as this helped a lot in giving a smooth kind of motivation along with the pre-determined kind of approach. One of the best thing about it is that there are positive results which are always determined through it. They seem to be perfect in its collaboration because of the innovative results which they used to give through it. These skills are not only helpful in giving a personal development but also there are some positive changes which are being seen in professional purposes as well. All of these aspects are key factors which are known to be derivatives of functional development of a person. Strengths Weaknesses At The Start Of Program Thus, if there is a need to make the impact short defined then strengths and weaknesses at the start of programs and end of program might be helpful. They would tell us that, which type of improvements, were being made. Let me describe you about them one by one. Strengths; Here is a list of some of the strengths mentioned below; Higher self motivation Devotion towards achievement of work/Success Best kind of techniques and tactics usage at different places Communicative skills Weaknesses; Multiple weaknesses were being felt, at the start of this program i.e. Less abilities to maintain stress Implementation of successful plans Thus, both of these strengths and weaknesses are those which were being determined at the start of this personal development process. Strengths Weaknesses At The End Of Program Thus, there were a number of improvements being felt at the end of this process. Reason behind this might be that, this is a special kind of learning program, which is being designed in order to teach a manager that how he or she might be able to make a distinction of their own work from the other people. Let me list down a number of strengths and weaknesses in this aspect. Strengths Increase in knowledge Techniques for handling a situation Improvement in handling stress in different conditions Determination of goals/ objectives and plans Know-how that how a successful goal achievement can be made Improvement in personal and professional skills Chances of improvement with in organization and outside an organization Weaknesses Still there is a need of more learning, so that processes of successful attempts can be made fastly Need to cope up with numerous time frames, of a number of cycles linked with working. Answer # 3 Personal Development Plan When there is a need to discuss the personal development plan then there is a need to know that there is a reflective record of management experience which is helpful in setting up the objectives and plans to meet goals. The personal development plan is as follows; First of all there is a need to do an understanding of some of the current required goals. These include the organizational as well as personal goals. Secondly this would be helpful in getting proper plan out. Through that there is a necessity of planning categorization being made. This is helpful in giving future positive results, which needs to be analyzed. After that getting the proper analyzing there is an option to get the implementation, monitoring and reviewing as well. This whole plan out would be helpful in getting the proper kind of end results Needs to understand current required of goals (Organizational Personal) Plan outs Need to make categories of planning Analyzing of Plans Implementation Monitoring Reviews End Results Personal development planning helps to attain potential and it helps to identify skills gaps and growth areas. In good Personal development planning you can do planning easily and promote your business further. In personal development plan employee enhances existing skills or knowledge and develops ground-breaking skills or expertise in its field. Identifying and Targeting the Dates For Monitoring And Reviews There is a need to make identification and targeting of dates for actions or goals being determined. This is because of numerous benefits which are associated with targeting dates. Thus for that purpose, let me give you some kind of tips, which might be effective in nature First of all, there is a need to make a note down of all goals Know about their importance Assign dates Dates should be assigned according to the time spam, which it might be taking while its completion process Make an overview of process Make timely check out, while processing of whole ongoing process Keeping in notice, if there is a need to make corrective actions at any step. Thus, all of these might be helpful because of the fact that, at the end of process, there might be some successful achievements. It is the duty of a manager, to keep proper check according to assigned dates. Thus, in end, I would like to include that, the end results of this ongoing process are almost beneficial in every aspect. As it is made through special categorization. But three main aspects linked with it use to include; Achievement Learning Visible change All of these three aspects are beneficial and part of fruitful results. Thus, they would only be ascertained if there is none kind of neglections or mistakes being taken in achievement of goal process. Short Term, Medium Term Long Term In order to determine goals the basic objective is to make strategy or make an analysis of financial statements of company. Thus, while talking about shot term goals of company, we would be able to know that, the current short tem goal can be to determine that what are the different problems being faced by company, what are their causes, and how they can be fixed while remaining in a certain boundary? Where as, medium term goals of a manager, use to include two basic aspects. First one is that if there is a need to make some changes, then how manager should adopt change with in organization? What are the reasons to change and how this change can be implemented so that company can make progress? This seems to be an open declaration for making strong decision making rules. These can be adaptive for sake of employees and company regulatories as well. (Ingham, J. 2007) Thirdly, the main thing is long term goals of an organization; they use to include effectiveness, efficiency and tactics for earning of profits. The better a manager is able to make some differentiation, wonderful might be the results seen because of it. Company would definitely be able to make benefit out of time factors. These can be analyzed from end results of these kinds of goals, actions and planning.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave: The Ev

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave: A Perspective on the Evils of Slavery The institution of slavery defies the very nature of humanity, truth, and intellect from both the slave and the slave owner. Throughout the "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave; the terrible relationship between ignorance and suppression is seen time and time again with every one of his owners. Douglass is fortunate in discovering the liberating power of knowledge of which his owners are trying so diligently to conceal. With this discovery comes a "new conception" of just how evil the institution of slavery is, causing Douglass to consider the pursuit of this powerful tool. To further complicate his battle against ignorance, Douglass's pathway to enlightenment and ultimately freedom leads him to discover the many other cruel methods that his suppressors use to break the essential and most important component of humanity, the soul. The practice of turning people into slaves can almost be looked at as evil science that begins its manipulations on what humans are most familiar with from the start, physical suffering. Douglass speaks of this early on and makes known that it is an ever-present tool used by his suppressors. Douglass was lucky not to be whipped very often by his early masters, but mentions that he, like many other young lave children, always suffered from the "hunger and cold" (Lauter 1773). Especially during his early years on Colonel Lloyd's plantation, his narration recalls many accounts of whipping, killing, and torture that he observed and heard of on the plantation. Sadly, he begins to notice and even accept common traits possessed by his overseers. For example, one of... ...rkness" (Lauter 1777). Interestingly, it is the innocent minds of children who are not totally corrupted by these ways of thinking yet, that help Douglass continue his goal to read. The heartless act and "irresponsible power" of holding a slave is an evil practice that contradicts the natural good of a human soul. This Narrative gives one a new perspective on the evils of slavery and the terrible way it affects every one who is involved. The ignorance and physical abuse of the slave is the essential means by which this practice survived for too long. Douglass gives us proof of this in his experiences he endured in overcoming these obstacles and makes us aware of the power that knowledge holds, of both freedom and slavery. Bibliography Lauter, Paul. The Heath Anthology of American Literature Ed III., Vol I, 1998 Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Electronic Communications Essay

As time goes by, the world is changing rapidly; so are its people and the technology itself. Technology brings about a lot of amendments in people’s life. It is getting more advanced from day to day especially when it comes to Information Technology or in this case; electronic communications. Back then, mailing was seemingly to be one of the most vital ways of communication especially for the world communication. In contrast, nowadays people are more prone to communicate the easier ways; by staring on their electronic accounts on their computers or through their iPods and sending short messages from their iPhones or Blackberries. Why is it so? In my slight opinion, this growing trend gives a lot of dominances in today’s life, which are helping people to save their time and money, create borderless communication and make it easy for people to gain prominent information. First and foremost, the world today is turning more to electronic communications like e-mail, Facebook and Short Message System (SMS) and other electronic communications is because they will prevent people from wasting their time and money. How do these work? As we all know, sending a letter to someone will take a lot of processes and will eventually take a long time and waste a lot of money. On the contrary, electronic communications entail only the tip of our fingers so as an electronic device to work with. Then, what is left for us to do is just, typing! Has that not taken a much lesser time and money? For instance, an e-mail only requires us to turn on our laptops, open our accounts on the website and then, you can start write your letter and send them through e-mails. In short, with the very unstable economy nowadays, having these kinds of communications will ease everyone’s burden especially on their daily expenses and also their valuable time will not be wasted. Secondly, the growing trend of electronic communications is making it possible for a borderless communication which is vital these days. Why is it vital? A lot of things require borderless communication; in education field, businesses and even daily activities, especially when foreigners involved. For example, when trading with foreigners, in order to communicate with each other, they need Skype or Yahoo Messenger as mediums to interact and be able to do the trade at a faster rate as compared to by using ‘snail mails’ or regular letters. Skype is the perfect example of an electronic communication which will cut he boundary that has separated each country and make communication between two different countries from around the world possible. In conclusion, it is crucial to have these electronic communications in today’s age of globalization as they make it easier for people around the world to connect with each other. Last but not least, the dominance of these electronic communications is people could gain prominent information more efficiently than before. As there are lesser borders between countries, the efficiency of getting much more relevant and prominent information is higher. People will have the ability to provide and gain information effectively through Facebook or Twitter accounts. For example, international artists who have planned to do a world concert can inform their fans about it through their Facebook account. Likewise, the fans also can ask just about anything to their favourite artists regarding the concert. Hence, this explains why people make these electronic communications as a huge trend these days and in order to keep the trend ongoing, each person has the responsibility to adapt with the technology itself. In a nutshell, the growing trend of using electronic communications is inevitably vital in people’s lives as it gives out a lot of benefits as stated in above paragraphs. So, to avoid ourselves from not getting the chance of keeping up with the changing trends, we have to try our best to adapt ourselves with the rapid changes. I believe that the electronic communication trend is a trend which is very important to be followed as the world is getting more advanced day to day.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Essay about AP Queenie perspective - 1317 Words

Aamp;P-Queenie nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Every summer my family and I go to our house in the cape just north of Boston. One hot summer morning, I was leaving the house to meet my family at the beach, suddenly I remembered my mother asked me to pick up a jar of â€Å"Kingfish Herring† for her and her friend to snack on at the beach. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;I started to walk across the street to my friend Lacey’s house. Lacey lives just outside Detroit, but like my family, her family comes to the cape for the summer. Our families’ have been friends for about 10 years, but we normally don’t see or talk to each other during the year, only summertime seems to bring us together. Traditionally Lacey and I leave for the beach together,†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The herring wasn’t to be found in the first aisle; it seemed to be dedicated primarily to breads and other baked goods. I moved onto the next aisle where my friends were already. Catching up to my friends who were scouring the racks and shelves for cookies and crackers find nothing that suited their fancy. â€Å"Did you find the fish?† I asked the girls, Mary shook her no signaling they didn’t find the fish. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;While walking to the next aisle I caught a glimpse of the clerks watching me and my friends, they must not get many people in here dressed in just bathing suits. Lacey saw this too, huddling around me with Mary, Lacey whispered, â€Å"Maybe we should hurry up, I don’t think they appreciate us in the store in just bathing suits.† I didn’t see a problem with our attire this is a beach community, but to make her feel better I quickly searched the shelves for the fish. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;As I scan through the shelves I see pet food, pastas, rice, drinks, cookies, and crackers but no herring. I catch sight of a man at the meat counter, and thought to myself maybe he can be of some help in finding the herring. â€Å"Excuse me,† I read a nametag that reads S. McMahon â€Å"Mr. McMahon do you know where the ‘Kingfish Fancy Herring Snacks’ are located?† to which he points to the aisle and responds â€Å"Two aisles over that way, past the Diet Delight Peaches.†Show MoreRelatedJohn Updike s A P1290 Words   |  6 Pagesmeaning anything that strays from the norm of everyday life. Disruptions are fundamental because people do not realize how a single disruption can alter someone’s perspective on life. John Updike’s short story A P reveals how important it is to have disruptions through the character Sammy. Sammy is a cashier at a store known as the A P and it can be assumed that Sammy is not happy wo rking there and has no incentive to work there for the rest of his life. 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In the short story, â€Å"A P† by John Updike, a teenage boy’s daily routine at work is completely rattled due to a group of three teenage girls that walk into the store he works at which he works and as a result, the teenage boy makes a life changing decision. The young men (Sammy) morals are put to the test along with his life expectations due to this group of teenage girls that help Sammy see his life through a different perspective. Through the teenage boy’s encounter with the